Basic Education And Teaching Mathematics
1.Introduction to Basic Education and Mathematics Teaching -This article states that basic education is imparted through three mediums - Nature, Society, and Craft. The child's life is spent in early life in the lap of nature and his life in the family After spending time comes in contact with the society. Therefore, in basic education, balance is established in nature, family and society. Mathematics establishes relationships in nature, family and society that are helpful in industry. The child needs knowledge of natural phenomena like sun, moon, time of stars, their position and direction, seasons and rain etc. All this is possible only through mathematics. Thus mathematics is very helpful in understanding natural phenomena. Home and society related problems such as eating, drinking, clothes and building houses, accounting of expenses incurred in transactions, details of income expenditure incurred in marriage, shraddh and other social festivals are all faced. Problems can also be solved through mathematics. Thus, social problems also require mathematics. Mathematics is used step by step in the industry. Use of area according to area of fields, measurement of seeds and weighing of products produced from them, market rate of storages, stores, sale, paper, wood, iron, zinc, tin, etc., color, chemical ratio etc. , The calculation of profit and loss, etc. is not possible without solving mathematics. Hence mathematics is well used in all four mediums - nature, family, society and industry.
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2.Objectives to Teach Mathematics in Basic Education -The aim of teaching mathematics in basic education is to enable students to be able to solve their industry and domestic and social life measurement problems quickly. Therefore, in basic education, the emphasis is on the practical and cultural value of mathematics. Disciplinary value of mathematics is not taken care of at all.
Therefore, the teacher should keep the following objectives in mind while teaching mathematics in basic education -
(1.) The child should have a thorough knowledge of the marks used in daily life.
(2.) The ability to solve many number and geometry problems arising in industry and daily life should be achieved quickly and accurately.
(3.) Children should be given opportunities to think on a subject themselves, to be focused, to make successful efforts on it and to express it in subtle terms through words, signs or pictures.
3. Mathematics Curriculum in Basic EducationThe knowledge of mathematics required by the child in a particular situation should be taught to the child at that time. By doing this, the child is interested in learning mathematics. Thus, the current requirement and interest of the child is the basic principle of making a mathematics course in basic education.
This course is very flexible. It has a subtle outline of the course. While teaching, teachers are free to choose any subject from the course and according to the interest of the children. There is no place for Theoretical and Artificial Mathematics in the syllabus. Special emphasis is given in this that mathematics should be related to daily life. Self Dr. Zakir Hussai had said in the basic plan of basic education that basic education should not be confined to theoretical marks but it should be very closely related to practical problems that arise while learning basic art skills. Therefore, in basic mathematics, basic questions related to work and time, and factors of meaningless algebra, etc., do not have a place at all in the curriculum of mathematics in basic education. In this, the same mathematics is respected, which is necessary in social and entertainment related activities and practical life in handicraft.Emphasis is given to Practical Geometry so that it can help in designing and drawing in handicraft and household works. Algebra is also taught in the same way which is helpful in simplifying arithmetic questions. Those equations of algebra are taught which help in solving handicraft problems.
There are many problems related to daily life in mathematics, some of them are as follows -
(1.) Industry Related -The shapes of triangles, quadrilaterals, squares and rectangles etc. can be made. When they weigh seeds and manure and cottonseed for the fields, at that time they can be told about weighing units like - kilogram, gram etc. While making beds and roads in fields and gardens, measuring their land, removing area etc. can be taught. By selling the produce produced in the field and garden, woven cloth can be made aware of their profit and loss and practical mathematics. In this regard, knowledge of their receipts, cash book and balance sheet will also be easy. They can also be taught a field book while constructing beds in the farm. They can also be made aware of speed, friction, etc. while weaving clothes. The knowledge of different shapes of geometry can be made while designing a woven garment. At the time of coloring, we get knowledge of colors. Knowledge of solid geometry, sphere, cube etc. can be easily given in making a model of clay. When they work with the earthen slopes, then their knowledge of counting will also become easy. Weighing, various measurements, etc. can be taught while making wooden and clay toys. They can be told to bring colors in different proportions in coloring. In this way, different types of mathematics can be taught on different types of industries.
(2.) Home and Family Related -Mathematics can be taught in many ways in the contexts related to food, drinking, building of houses, reading and writing, transactions. Percentage related questions can be made in relation to the income tax of the guardians of the children. Interest-related questions can be raised in the context of depositing, withdrawing and levying interest on money in post offices and banks.
(3.) Related to society -Interest, Profit and Loss, Partnership and other major rules of arithmetic can be easily explained to the children by running a co-operative store in the school. Children should also be accounted for the festivities in school. With this, they can easily learn things such as transactions, purchases and expenses. In the society, marriage, marriage, shraddh and many practical and social work, transactions, buying and selling, many types of mathematics in the context of children can be taught.
4. Equipment -
5. Method -In basic education, the teaching method of Mathematics is not to give out the rules by direct rules, but should solve the problem that arises while learning; eg, a child spun 40 meters in one day and 35 meters on the other day. . Now it will need to know how many meters of yarn he spun on both days. This time is a good opportunity to teach the teacher the rules of addition. In this way, many problems will arise in relation to the craft and using them, knowledge of mathematics will be given easily. The teacher should also consider while teaching mathematics that children are very small in basic classes, so they should be taught in the Inductive Method because the Deductive Method requires a lot of logic and understanding.
By doing this, teaching of mathematics will be done with the help of real life related matters. Sometimes absurd and untrue examples appear in books like - a man is 14 years old and has 3 children. Now it is a matter of wondering if a 14 year old boy can have 3 children.
The In the same way, such questions are also asked, which answer 20.5 man. Is it possible to have 20.5 men? Sometimes such questions are also asked that if the price of a horse is 2 rupees, then the value of 8 horses is said. Can a horse be worth 2 rupees? Therefore, such questions should not be addressed to children which are artificial and untrue. It has a bad effect on children. They consider mathematics as unrelated to life and understand a strange and terrible subject. The teacher should ask the child to do the same questions which are numerical, descriptive, related to eating and drinking, wearing and wearing, playing and playing, etc. Along with this, materials related to mathematics such as counting tools, coins, geometric sets, shapes of solid geometry, etc. should also be used while teaching mathematics. Doing so will create a natural tendency among children. He will get juice in mathematics. They will start taking interest in mathematics. They will have the tendency to research - research and will be able to solve their problems on their own.
Sometimes teachers make a mistake, they threaten children when they learn mathematics and make them make mistakes and beat them and beat them. In addition, they impose subtle and unobtrusive principles in mathematics without considering the age and understanding of children. The result of this is that the children become indifferent to mathematics and run away from it. By rote they may pass the exam but are unable to take real use of mathematics in their lives. Therefore, teachers should beware of these mistakes. They should create such an atmosphere of love so that the children can feel free to resolve their doubts with the teacher and do not hesitate to ask anything to the teacher. Mathematics teacher should also keep in mind that as long as the interest of the children is in the subject, then mathematics should be taught because only the favorable situation and the work done at the right time is completely successful. At the time when the children get bored while studying any subject of mathematics and when they are not interested in reading it, the result will be the same as when the pot is filled and water is filled. Therefore, children should be taught as long as they remain interested in the subject.
The boys should have speed and accuracy in solving maths questions and there should not be any kind of mistake in mathematics related writing. This requires drill in math work. But the practice should be done in such a way that the child is not bored of doing it. The teacher should do this exercise through Play-way-Method. In practice, questions should be chosen in such a manner that children continue to take interest in them. The teacher should not insist on the short cut of a question, but rather it should be done in the order in which children think. Weak children should also take care of mathematics teacher. Bright and weak (Weak) boys should be taught as much as possible. Sometimes teachers sit too quickly to bring weak children with fast boys. By doing this, the foundation of weak child remains weak which hinders further progress. Children should not get angry on impure answers, but should try to get them correct answers.