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# General Principles of Teaching Arithmetic

## 1.Relation to life #### General Principles of Teaching arithmetic

The subject matter of this subject should be related to the facts and circumstances of life, otherwise this topic will become a monumental subject for the students. Most of the students in our schools find this subject very difficult and dull and they also get less marks in examinations. In fact arithmetic is a time-consuming and interesting subject, but due to inaccurate teaching methods, the interest of students is not developed in this subject.By making the basis of students' experience, forethought and interests in arithmetic, the subject becomes interesting and students are motivated to solve the questions. Stuart Mill has said - "Numbers are not intangible. All numbers are the number of objects." If we ask a student of a small class that what would be the answer to the addition of 5 and 7, then it would be difficult to add them. If we ask, "What will be the 5 oranges and 7 oranges?" Student can answer this easily.The processes of joint, rest, multiplication, part, etc can be done simply by establishing a relation of the physical objects and numbers, because the child can relate to processes with the understanding of less or more here.
A special advantage is to associate arithmetic text with the real facts of life, that the arithmetic knowledge of students becomes socialized.When we solve the problems of arithmetic, we can tell them the actual distance between the two familiar places, the actual rate of interest in the post offices, the movement of hourly kilometers of the postmaster, the price of the bicycle, the market price of Philips radio, the average weight of students of class X , Area of ​​the farm near the school, the area of ​​the four walls of the school, the volume of water lane in the school garden, the actual post office of the school The distance, the average weight of a melon, annual increase in the Indian population, mortality in India, the birth rate etc. India's National Income, assist in the development of correct mathematical approaches by spending information on the per capita on education, the cost of computer, the average monthly expenditure on keeping a car, expenditure on food in the average household etc.

## 2. Equation of Ideas -

Counting is only one side of the arithmetic. A clear understanding of the arithmetic suffixes is also important.There are several suffixes in each sub topic in arithmetic whose information is not possible without using them in the calculation process. Students who do not have practical knowledge of these relations, do not start further lessons.
In addition to the explanations of the suffixes, the students should be given proper practice to use them. There are many sub-topics in decimal system, percentages, averages, ratios etc. in arithmetic whose clarity about the prefixes is compulsory and Sufficient practice is also required for their practical use. For example, when we teach a sub-topic of interest, the student must have a clear understanding of the following suffixes -
(1.) Interest is calculated on the principal.
(2.) Interest increases along with time period.
(3.) Interest is a type of rent used for capital.
(4.) Interest = Px R xT%
Similarly a clear knowledge of the following suffixes related to profit and loss is necessary -
(i) Profit or loss is at purchasing value.
(ii) Every business is used to profit.
(iii) In order to avail the profit, the sale price will be higher than the purchase price.
(iv) The expenses incurred in the business are added to the cost price.
(v) The higher the difference in sales and purchase price. The greater the difference between purchasing and selling-value, the greater the loss.
To clarify the suffixes, the principle of 'macro to micro' should be worked out.Where necessary, chart, picture model etc. should also be used. Whatever problems are presented, they should be related to the lives of the students and should be the basis for contemplation of forethought.

### 3. Mental calculation -

While solving problems of arithmetic, students should practice mental arithmetic. After understanding the principles, the kind of meditation that the student does in the mind, for his application, is called mental work.While calculating, many things should be done in case of non-paper and pencil. With mental mathematics, students can think about the possible solutions and calculations related to the problem and make a decision about possible solutions.
The following benefits are derived from mental calculation-
(1.) The level of contemplation can be improved in the students.
(2.) Preferences, procedures and facts can be understood very quickly at the mental level.
(3) The expected findings can be quickly detected.
(4) The power to remember the subject matter increases.
(5.) Answers can be quickly detected.
Students who think about the uses of the principles of mathematics, suffixes, processes etc., at the mental level, knowledge of their subject is of good quality and And they have the convenience of learning new lessons. Along with verbal work in the classroom, adequate practice of mental math should be done. While solving the problem, the teacher can motivate mental contemplation in the right direction by question-answer about the suffixes. Before using written work, the practice of thinking in students is useful.

### 4. Scientific way of posing problems -

In arithmetic, problems related to life should be created. Students do not have the joy of solving conventional problems because the facts given in them do not have any connection with their life. If the facts are correct and interesting, then the students will know the findings eagerly. Non-scientific and traditional problems have arisen most of the hindrances in arithmetic learning.The arithmetic teacher should be aware of the activities of the society so that the problems can be compiled by compiling the necessary facts and making scientific problems. When solving problems, students get information about the usefulness of arithmetic content and create an attitude about society. The problem solving method is more appropriate to teach arithmetic. The problems available in books are mostly filled with errors and errors.The following points should be taken into account in building problems:
(i) The language of the problem should be simple and clear.
(ii) The problem should not be unnecessarily long.
(iii) The facts given in the problem are clear and correct.
(iv) 'what to know' in the problem? Must be clear.
(v) If necessary, the problem can be written in different parts, so that the students can understand them well. Make Algebra the basis
(vi) Where possible, images, tables, etc. along with the problem can also be given to facilitate understanding the given facts.
(vii) The problem is suitable for the level of the children.
(viii) Integrated teaching of arithmetic and geometry should be done.

### 5. Individual variations in the classroom -

All students in the class are not of equal merit. Some students are educated and others are savvy. It is necessary to co-ordinate the ability of the students and the level of teaching. A skilled teacher attempts to fulfill all the needs of the students in the classroom.Keeping in mind the personal differences of students, unit-schemes and lesson plans should be created. How many problems can be solved in a period. It can be decided by the teacher keeping in mind the ability of the students of their class. While teaching in class, it can be estimated by question-answer method that students are understanding the subject matter or not.Whenever a new lesson is taught, efforts should be made to clarify all related suffixes by several methods. Writing problems on the board by presenting the problem in the classroom can attract the attention of students to various aspects of the problem. Some students should read the problem before the whole class so that the language and facts can be explained. Every student should become clear that 'what is given'? And what to know? ''After this, discuss the method of solving the students with the teacher and verbally explain which method is appropriate in solving this problem and why other methods are not suitable. Provide teachers the correct direction to the mental reflection of the students. By doing so, he can elevate his thinking and reasoning level. Students in the class should be free to get rid of the problem of independence problem, so that they can examine themselves regarding the suitability of the related method.On such occasions, the teacher can assist students in finding solutions by giving personal attention. The greater use of Shyampatti is very helpful in attracting the attention of the orbit. The collective difficulties of calculation can be explained with the help of students on blackboard. If these things are kept in mind, after completing the teaching work, students can be reconciled with the personal differences.In the teaching work, skilled students can also get help as needed to overcome the difficulties of the weak students. Practice is required in class and at home for the clarity of the principles taught by students.
In the classroom, if efforts are made to clarify the precepts, concepts, principles, processes, calculations related to calculations, then there will be a reduction in the amount of individual variations in the students,Gradation will be achieved in the level of achievement in class and classroom will become classical.

### 6. Practice and written work -

Practice work is essential for understanding the theories and processes of arithmetic. The program of practice is based on systematic and pre-planning. It is also necessary to be interesting to practice work. If students understand the new principles properly in the classroom then the practice becomes attractive to them.Practice work fulfills the important objectives of mathematics education. There are many such actions in mathematics that it is necessary to do repeatedly. Practices work through purity and speed in actions.
Practice work must be constantly checked. This will make the expected improvement in students' errors. They will not be able to improve them until the students are aware of the errors made by them.Practical work should be related to the materials taught in the classroom. Training is required for students to do written, correct, pure, clean and systematic work.