Teaching of Arithmetic -
1.Introduction-In his early days, when humans were under trees in trees, there was no need for arithmetic. Apart from food and safety, it was not necessary. His particular focus was limited to the then-leisure facilities.When the human group started to build, the number of needs began to grow and it needed to keep accounting with the development of civilization. He started counting his things and lost them when he lost them.Shaniya Shaniya, he started using the language of the number and listening to the mouth of others also understood it. In the beginning, the number of objects is calculated from different symbols or objects.
In fact, the need for knowledge of arithmetic is born when dealing with objects. To achieve the necessary tools, clothes, food etc., it became necessary for him to assess the value of the items and compare them with the values of other things.Along with the development of civilization, man developed arithmetic to solve his problems and gave the number system a scientific form. In our present life, our work can not be done without arithmetic. The suffixes of numbers and arithmetic are used in every field of life.
As our life and business are getting complicated, the use of arithmetic is increasing as well.Today, we employ many concepts and processes of arithmetic in every field of life.Number system is an important base of these and the characteristics of numbers have given birth to algebra and geometry. The set theory is based on the characteristics of numbers. In order to develop this number system of human has had to be persistent efforts for centuries and efforts are still being made to refine it today.
Life was not complex at the beginning of civilization. But with the development of business and life, humans had to create new arithmetic suffixes. The decimal system is unprecedented in this century. Before its discovery, the units of transactions, measure-weights, etc. were different and their basis of calculation was not even the same.But the decimal system has simplified hard calculations by assessing the calculation of different units as a basis. The invention of zero is the unique gift of the human brain. If we did not have knowledge of zero then today the nature of calculation processes would be very unscientific and possibly the amount of our progress would be very low.Newer measures are being taken to calculate, and with the help of computer hard calculations can be done very quickly.
So far, arithmetic has been considered as the subject of a calculation. But the simplicity of calculation processes is going to reduce the importance of this recognition.
In fact, arithmetic is related to calculation-side processes. Scientific studies of numbers are also an important part of arithmetic. Today the area of arithmetic has become very broad. It has been used in different areas. A typical form of arithmetic has been developed in these areas.
(1.) Family arithmetic (2.) Agricultural arithmetic (3.) Insurance arithmetic (4.) Bank arithmetic (5.) Production arithmetic (6.) Population arithmetic (7.) Business arithmetic (8.) Consumption arithmetic (9 .) Tax arithmetic (10.) Fatal arithmetic (11.) Computer arithmetic (12.) Sports arithmetic) (13.) Examination arithmetic
2.Meaning of Arithmetic :-Arithmetic is derived from the Greek word meaning 'science of numbers' and 'art of calculation'. Arithmetic involves the scientific study of the relation of numbers and the efficiency of the calculation. Mathematics teachers should emphasize on both sides of arithmetic. By emphasizing on one side, the second aspect of arithmetic becomes subtle.Knowledge of points and art of calculation - both parties are important. It is difficult to acquire skills in calculating without the scientific knowledge of numbers and knowledge of numbers is extremely important when calculating. Both are related to each other.One of the strong arguments in favor of teaching arithmetic is that it has significant use in daily life. To make arithmetic and its written symbols meaningful, use of everyday items should be used. In this way, students will understand the meaning of the numbers and symbols of the numbers by linking to the real objects.
3.Arithmetic is intended to teach the following things in primary classes-(1.) Ability to count quickly.
(2.) Ability to add, subtract, multiply and divide the small and large numbers written and verbal, and the ability to make problems based on them.
(3.) Knowledge of Variants
(4.) Knowledge of coins and their numerical value.
(5.) Ability to buy and sell goods. Ability to calculate value and calculate related to them. Ability to calculate with computer help
(6.) Ability to use arrays of sub-topics related to arithmetic courses.
(7) Knowledge of simple measurements, divisions and related processes related to them.
(8.) Knowledge of units measuring length and distance and ability to perform related calculations.
(9.) Ability to bring the principles of arithmetic to work in solving the problems of life.
(10.) Integrated teaching of arithmetic and geometry.
4 Objectives of Teaching of Arithmetic -(1) Knowing the number of languages, number-suffixes and number-symbols of children and the ability to use them successfully in life.
(2.) Creating the ability to think clearly about number, time and place in children.
(3) Use of mathematical ideas and the ability to reason in children.
(4) Creating the ability to properly understand arithmetic related statements in children and analyze them and find the right conclusions.
(5) Creating the ability to solve arithmetic practical problems in children. Creating the ability to use the computer.
(6.) Creating the ability to quantify the quantity, number, distance, and weight in the children.
(7.) Creating the ability to use the basic principles of arithmetic in children. Develop the ability to understand the numbers through the number line and geometric shapes.
(8.) Ability to calculate children quickly and accurately.
(9) Developing ideas, reasoning and decision-power in the children.
(10.) Adopting habit of cleanliness, purity and regular work in children.
(11.) The number of children - making the basis for the study of algebra and geometry of knowledge. Know the characteristics of the number line.
5.Develope the Following Qualities in Children -(1.) Time restriction.
(2) Save per month by adjusting expenses and earnings. Budgeting expenses and income Putting the habit of spending less.
(3.) To purchase and sell market prices through the benefit of goods.
(4.) To deposit money by opening savings accounts in post offices or banks.
(5.) While doing business, study the components that have an impact on business.
(6.) Attempts to understand the reasons for the increase and fall in the value of items.
(7.) To study the current economy and to try to understand its complexity in terms of theories of arithmetic.
(9.) To study current tax systems and calculate tax.
(10) Yoga in the development of the country by understanding the economic policies of the nation.
(11.) Finding the correct numerical approximation.
(12.) Painting numbers by geometric shapes.